How to choose the TSS size ?



Each chart corresponds to a game. The distances are in column and the size of TSS in raw.

In each cell, there is the load necessary to respect the pattern density of pellets necessary to reach the game with the appropriate number of balls (generally 4,2 on average and 8 in the center).

For a wingeon, for exemple, this minimum pattern density is 180 balls in a circle 30" in diameter. You can also find in column the number of balls for 10 g of shot.

When the cell is in white, it is because the penetration is not sufficient for the game considered. When it is in blue, it is that it is the optimal charge in simple shot. In green, it works too but it is not optimal.

In fact, using the chart, you can know what you should shoot if you know the distance and type of game. For example, a vingeon duck at 60 m will be killed with a 29 gr of 9 1/2 but it is relatively border line for the penetration level. With 9, it will increase to 34 grams to ensure the pattern density of 180 balls.

If the explanations are not clear enough, you can leave a comment (registration required) and I will answer quickly.


TSS Size Range game Duck goose

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Comments (5)

  • 1. gbalis | 20/08/2019
Hi, what is the residual energy of these pellets (per size) at 40.50 mt?

I believe the spreadsheet might be good in terms of penetration but, potentially, lacks in pattern density ... which is what kills when terminal energy is unknown. Penetration is good, but it's better to strike the quarry with more pellets that penetrates less than less pellets that penetrates more.
For instance: #7 at 60 m is blue but i am sure that 8's (and 9's) would do the same job -if not better - as you can ensure more hits than 7's (rule of 5 pellets per kill still applies).
Many times you strike the quarry with one passing pellets but won't kill it or stop it as it doesn't hit vitals or bones; whereas smaller, non passing pellets, will still deliver enough energy to cause a nervous system shutdown
are you doing any such study to confirm that?
Many Thanks,
TRECA Olivier
  • TRECA Olivier | 22/08/2019
Hi, The table is calculated including 2 parameters: penetration necessary to reach a vital organ and density of the pattern. For the penetration, the value is for example 1" 1/2 for mallard, less for teals ( 1" 1/8) and more for geese (2" 1/4). The penetration is calculated with a velocity at the end of the bore of 400 m/s so 1312 ft/s. For the pattern density, you need around 4 pellets to have the chance to have one reaching a vital organ. To kill cleanly a mallard (with a surface of 1/10 sq ft), you need 110 pellets in a 30" diameter circle, which is in average 40 to 45 pellets per square foot. For a teal, you need 190 and for a goose 80. The combination of these 2 parameters insure the efficiency of the TSS load. In blue the optimal load for the distance which is OK for the penetration and the pattern density for the type of bird. If you shoot higher load, the pattern density will be higher and so, better but more expensive... In fact, I can also give the impact energy, but upon my opinion, the penetration is more important to know. Knowing it, you can adapt the pellet size for an accurate penetration, i.e. not too low (injury risk) and not too high, with the risk for the pellets to go threw the bird without to kill it. I hope it's clearer for you. Don't hesitate to come back. It's a interesting discussion.
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  • 3. Peter | 11/07/2020
What shhot sizes are these numbers from UK or US or European ? with the Australian ( I think is the same as UK shot sizes) I used No.2 lead shot with 1 3/8 Ounce loads (about 40gm) to shoot ducks and foxes out to fairly log distances approximately 50 to 60 m at times But here I see you stating that you would need 70gm of Number 5 shot (smaller sht than average for long range duck hunting in English sized shot with lead ) 70gm is about 2 1/4 ounces maybe a 10 gauge mag maximum load ? definitely not possible in 2 3/4: 12 gauge. maybe a Punt Gun load
TRECA Olivier
  • TRECA Olivier | 06/08/2020
The size I used for the calculation are the french series i.e. 3 mm for #5, 2.75 for #6, 2.5 for #7, 2.25 mm for #8 and 2 mm for #9. For the half size : #9 1/2 = 1.9 mm, #8 1/2 = 2.15 mm, #7 1/2 = 2.4 mm. And the #10 = 1.8 mm.

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